Rome

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Rome

Rome on the Map

GPS N41.896144°,E12.483215°
Rome is the capital of Italy as well as the largest and most populous city in the country. For centuries it has been the centre of Western civilizations. It is often nicknamed as “la Città Eterna” (The Eternal City), “Caput Mundi” (Capital of the world), “Limen Apostolorum” (Threshold of the Apostles), “la città dei sette colli” (The city of the seven hills) or simply “l'Urbe” (The City). Rome is the seat of the Catholic Church. The Historic Center of Rome is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. City has two saint patrons – St. Peter and St. Paul.

According to a legend, the city of Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus on April 21, 753 BC. The city developed into the capital of the Roman Kingdom, later the Roman Republic and finally the Roman Empire. For almost a thousand years, Rome was the most politically important, richest and largest city in the Western world. During the Middle Ages Rome kept status of Papal capital and "holy city". Even when it was no longer politically powerful, the city flourished as a hub of cultural and artistic activity during the Renaissance and the Baroque, under the patronage of the Papal court. Between the 17th and 19th centuries, Rome was ultimately lagged behind the rest of the European capitals, being largely busy in the Counter-Reformation process. It became the focus of the hopes for Italian unification and was declared capital of the newly unified Italy in 1871. Between the two world wars, Rome witnessed the rise of Italian fascism guided by Benito Mussolini. During the Second World War it was damaged by both Allied forces bombing and Nazi occupation. It started to grow again after the war.

The area of Rome covers 1,285 square kilometers and the whole urban area has 5,352 square kilometers. It lies in the Lazio region (it is its capital), in the central-western part of the Italian peninsula, on the place where the river Aniene joins the Tiber. It has a typical Mediterranean climate. As far as the population is concerned, more than 2,700,000 inhabitants live in Rome. The population density is 2,105 inhabitants per square kilometer. In the urban area it is more than 4 million and in the metropolitan up to 5 and half million inhabitants.

The State of the Vatican City, the sovereign territory of the Holy See is an enclave of Rome. It is 44 hectares large with approximately 800 inhabitants. It came into being in 1929. There is the Saint Peter’s Basilica with Saint Peter’s Square in front of it. Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed it under the direction of Pope Alexander VII. In this small state there are also the Vatican Library, Vatican Museums with the Sistine Chapel, the Raphael Rooms and other important works of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Giotto, and Botticelli.

To the other famous Rome landmarks belong for example Colosseum, Column of Marcus Aurelius, Piazza del Campidoglio, Piazza del Popolo, The Spanish Steps, Ponte Sant'Angelo, Trevi Fountain, Capitoline Hill, the Circus Maximus, basilicas Santa Maria Maggiore and San Paolo Fuori le Mura and many more.

Modern Rome is a cosmopolitan city, the third most visited tourist destination in the European Union. It is seat of the headquarters of the vast majority of the major Italian companies, as well as of three of the world's 100 largest companies (Enel, ENI, Telecom Italia).

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