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Wrocław (in English is also used name Breslau) is a city in Polish Voivodeship Lower Silesian, the main city in the south-western part of the country on the banks of the Oder River. The city is traditionally believed to be named after Vratislav, who could be either Duke Vratislavus I of Bohemia, or the tribal duke of the Silesians, or an early ruler of the city.

Wroclaw was established in the 10th century as a Bohemian stronghold and it got city rights in 1242. In the first half of the 13th century Wrocław became the political centre of the divided Polish kingdom. The city was devastated in 1241 during the Mongol invasion of Europe and afterwards it was partly populated by German settlers. In the 15th and 16th century Wroclaw was the city of both reformation (for Protestants) and counter-reformation (for Catholics) and at the end of the Thirty Years' War, it was one of only a few Silesian cities to stay Protestant. During the Napoleonic Wars, Wroclaw was occupied by an army of the Confederation of the Rhine. It became the centre of the German Liberation movement against Napoleon. The Unification of Germany in 1871 turned Wroclaw into the sixth-largest city in the German Empire. After the World War I it became the capital of the newly created Prussian Province of Lower Silesia and the number of Poles living here dropped dramatically. The city became one of the strongest support bases of the Nazis. A network of concentration camps and forced labour camps was established around Wroclaw. The number of people in Wroclaw during the World War II increased to nearly one million. In February 1945 the Soviet Red Army approached the city and the Siege of Wroclaw took three months. By its end half of the city had been destroyed. Along with almost all of Lower Silesia, the city became part of Poland under the terms of the Postdam Conference.

The city covers the area of 292.82 square kilometres. The population is 632,240 with the density 2,159 inhabitants per square kilometer. This makes Wroclaw the fourth largest city in Poland. Number of people living in Wroclaw metropolitan area is higher than million. Like all of Poland, Wrocław's population is predominantly Roman Catholic; the city is the seat of an Archdiocese. It is one of the warmest cities in Poland. Administratively it is further subdivided into five boroughs.

Wrocław is the third largest educational centre of Poland, with 135,000 students in 30 colleges. Its major industries were traditionally the manufacture of railroad cars and electronics. After 1989, the city became a significant financial centre and houses the headquarters of several nationwide financial institutions. Wroclaw is served by an international airport and a river port.

The Old Town of Wroclaw is built on several islands connected by over 100 bridges. It is the combination of Gothic, Baroque and Art Nouveau architecture. Several musical and theatre festivals, as well as its busy nightlife, attract innumerable visitors from all over Poland and abroad. The main sights in the city create: Ostrow Tumski (Cathedral Island with Wroclaw Cathedral), Rynek (Market Square), Hala Stulecia (Centennial Hall), Multimedia Fountain, City Stadium, Szczytnicki Park with Japanese garden, Zoo and Botanical gardens, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw water tower, Wroclaw Palace or White Stork Synagogue.

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